All posts by bmallon

20,000 Winter Olympians and 100,000 Male Olympians

There are about 2,950 athletes entered here in PyeongChang (PC). Of these 1,689 have never before competed at an Olympic Games.

This brings the total number of Olympians (since 1896) over a few landmarks. The following now assumes that all 1,689 new Olympians will compete in PC, which is probably not exactly the case.

The number of Winter Olympians will now top 20,000 for the first time, reaching about 20,705. So some new Olympian in PC will become the 20,000th Winter Olympian – who will it be? Actually, it will be very hard to say, because to date, there have currently been 19,016 Winter Olympians through 2014. So of the 1,014 new Winter Olympians likely to compete, it will be the 984th to enter the start gate. If you’d like to try to track that let us know.

Further the number of male Olympians, summer and winter, will top 100,000 for the first time, likely reaching about 100,997 if all 1,014 new male Olympians compete in PC. This is trackable and it will likely be possible to determine who is the 100,000th male Olympian. To date, there have been 99,983 male Olympians, so the 17th new male competitor to get to the starting line will be the 100,000th male Olympian.

Who will that be? This morning there were 4 mixed doubles curling matches, with 8 men competing. Six of those 8 men are new Olympians, bringing us to 99,989 male Olympians all-time, as of noontime, PyeongChang time..

Men’s normal hill ski jump qualifying takes place tonite. There will likely be 60 competitors (62 at Sochi in this event phase), and of those, about 20 will be new Olympians – as I write this the start list as not yet been announced.

The 11th new Olympian in the men’s normal hill ski jump qualifying tonite will become the 100,000th male Olympian. That should be relatively easy to determine as the ski jumpers go off one at a time. Once I get that start list, I’ll update this.

Sochi Medals Revisited – Again

Today’s CAS ruling puts all Sochi results and purported Sochi results and updates into chaos.

Here is what the original medal standings looked like at the end of the Sochi Olympics (top 5 places only).

Original NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
23-Feb-14 RUS 13 11 9 33 1 1
23-Feb-14 USA 9 7 12 28 2 4
23-Feb-14 NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2
23-Feb-14 CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3
23-Feb-14 NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

After the Oswald Commission rulings, fully released by 22 December 2017, the Russians lost 13 medals from Sochi, as follows:

Class Sport Year Event Place
M CCS 2014 50K 1
M SKE 2014 Skeleton 1
M BOB 2014 2-man 1
M BOB 2014 4-man 1
M CCS 2014 4x10relay 2
M CCS 2014 50K 2
M CCS 2014 Team Sprint 2
X LUG 2014 Mixed Relay 2
M LUG 2014 Singles 2
F SSK 2014 500 2
F BIA 2014 Relay 2
F BIA 2014 7.5 km 2
F SKE 2014 Skeleton 3

This changed the Sochi medals table to the following:

22 Dec 2017 NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
22-Dec-17 USA 9 7 12 28 1 3
22-Dec-17 NOR 11 5 10 26 2 1
22-Dec-17 CAN 10 10 5 25 3 2
22-Dec-17 NED 8 7 9 24 4 5
22-Dec-17 RUS 9 3 8 20 5 4

After today’s ruling by CAS, at least 9 of the 13 Russian medals will likely be restored. The following should be restored:

Class Sport Year Event Place
M RUS CCS 2014 50K 1
M RUS SKE 2014 Skeleton 1
M RUS CCS 2014 4x10relay 2
M RUS CCS 2014 50K 2
M RUS CCS 2014 Team Sprint 2
X RUS LUG 2014 Mixed Relay 2
M RUS LUG 2014 Singles 2
F RUS SSK 2014 500 2
F RUS SKE 2014 Skeleton 3

Four medals DQs have not yet changed. The 2-man bobsled gold medal will remain disqualified as both Aleksandr Zubkov and Aleksey Voyevoda’s DQs were upheld, although their lifelong Olympic bans were reversed. The women’s biathlon relay silver remains removed, as does the women’s biathlon 7.5 km silver, as Olga Zaytseva and Olga Vilukhina have not had their appeals heard yet. The 4-man bobsled gold medal is in no man’s land. Zubkov and Voyevoda were part of that gold medal sled, and were disqualified, but the other two pushers, Dmitry Trunenkov and Aleksey Negodaylo, were both exonerated.

With the CAS rulings, 9 medals – 2 golds, 6 silvers, and 1 bronze – will be restored to the Russians from Sochi. This makes the current top of the medal standings for Sochi look like the following:

Current NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
1-Feb-18 RUS 11 9 9 29 1 1
1-Feb-18 USA 9 7 12 28 2 4
1-Feb-18 NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2
1-Feb-18 CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3
1-Feb-18 NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

By either the US system (medals-gold-silver-bronze) or the International / European system (gold-silver-bronze) of medal rankings, the Russian team returns to the top of the medal standings in Sochi.

Sports, Disciplines, and Phases

There are 15 sports to be contested at the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics. Oh, wait a minute, actually there’s only 7 sports being contested. Did you know that swimming is not a sport at the Olympics? I know, you think I’m nuts.

But all of those statements have some element of truth to them, including the last one. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defines several types of competitions to be held at the Olympic Games. These are, in order – sports, disciplines, events, phases, units.

Sports are “sports” that are governed by International Federations (IFs). These include what we expect – athletics (track & field), basketball, rowing, wrestling, etc. It does not include swimming, which is not a sport to the IOC, but it does include aquatics, which is.

Disciplines are subsections of sports. Many sports have subsections, such as athletics with running, throwing, hurdling, but only certain sports have defined disciplines by their IFs. Cycling has road cycling, track cycling, mountain biking, and BMX racing. Skiing has Alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, freestyle skiing, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and snowboarding. And aquatics, defined as a sport by the Fédération Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA), recognizes several disciplines, four of which are held at the Olympic Games – swimming, diving, artistic swimming (known until this year as synchronized swimming), and water polo. So swimming is not a sport at the Olympics, it is a discipline.

Events are competitions at the Olympic Games for which the result yields a final result standings and medals to be awarded, such as the 100 metre freestyle swimming, or the decathlon. Thus, in the sport of skiing, we have the discipline of Alpine skiing, and within that discipline, we have the events of downhill, super-G, giant slalom, slalom, and combined (and now a team event).

The decathlon is considered an event, but it also has 10 phases – subsections of an event, in this case, the 10 different athletics events that constitute the decathlon. In other events, things like the finals, semi-finals, first round, qualifying rounds, etc., are considered phases of the event.

Finally, we have event units, which are actually subsections of phases. In the semi-final phase, there is semi-final 1, semi-final 2, etc., both of which are considered units.

So at the Olympic Winter Games, we have 7 sports officially considered as such by the IOC and the IFs – biathlon, bobsledding and skeleton, curling, ice hockey, luge, skating, and skiing.

It might seem that there are actually 15 sports at the Winter Olympics, and the media usually considers this to be the case, and we keep separate statistics for each sport/discipline as if they were all sports. However, the breakdown is as follows, with the sports, followed by their disciplines:

 

  • Biathlon
  • Bobsledding and Skeleton
    • Bobsledding
    • Skeleton
  • Curling
  • Ice Hockey
  • Luge
  • Skating
    • Figure Skating
    • Short-Track Speed Skating
    • Speed Skating
  • Skiing
    • Alpine Skiing
    • Cross-Country Skiing
    • Freestyle Skiing
    • Nordic Combined
    • Ski Jumping
    • Snowboarding

 

It should also be noted that these sports are not immutable. Biathlon is considered a sport because it has its own IF, but that was not always so. It used to be governed by the UIMPB – the Union Internationale Moderne Pentathlon et Biathlon, which governed both modern pentathlon and biathlon.

Snowboarding is technically governed by the FIS (Fédération Internationale de Ski), but it has had its own governing body, and when snowboarding was approved as an Olympic sport in 1998, there was great controversy whether it would come under the IOC umbrella governed by the FIS, which wanted to control it, or the World Snowboard Federation, or even variants of its predecessors, the International Snowboard Federation, or the National Association of Professional Snowboarders. Had it come onto the Olympic Program governed by its own IF, it would be called a sport, not a discipline.

So there you have it. There will be 7 sports contested at PyeongChang. Or maybe it’s 15. Or maybe it’s … We hope this has cleared things up for you.

Vonn and Shiffrin and the Search for Five

Can the USA, or more specifically, Lindsey Vonn and Mikaela Shiffrin, win all 5 women’s individual events in Alpine skiing at the PyeongChang Winter Olympics? And has anything like that ever been done before?

Embed from Getty Images

The Alpine events have been swept before, both by Austria, or rather Toni Sailer, in 1956 at Cortina d’Ampezzo; and in 1968 by France, or Jean-Claude Killy, at Grenoble. Other than those 2 dominating individual accomplishments, no other nation has ever swept the Alpine gold medals, and it has never been done on the women’s side, even with only 3 events, with the closest any nation or person came to that occurring in 1976 when Rosi Mittermaier (FRG) won gold in the downhill and slalom, and a silver in the giant slalom.

However, there have been 5 Alpine events at the Winter Olympics since 1988 in Calgary. At PyeongChang there will actually be an opportunity for a 6th event, with a mixed team event, but here we are only looking at the 5 individual events.

Vonn is coming back from injuries and until later December did not look like she was ready to win any medals, but she has since won 2 races and is likely the favorite in the downhill. There have not been many Super-Gs for women this year, but Vonn did win one at Val d’Isere in December. Lara Gut (SUI) is likely favored, but Vonn, almost a pure speed skier, will certainly contend.

Embed from Getty Images
Lindsey Vonn

Shiffrin has been, until recently, purely a technical skier. In the women’s slalom she will be the heaviest Alpine favorite in PyeongChang, winning 7 World Cup slaloms already this season. She has also won 2 World Cup giant slaloms this year and will likely be favored in that event. Further, Shiffrin, has 2 podiums this year in downhill, an event she eschewed prior to this season, including a victory in December at Lake Louise. With that improved skill in the downhill, and her dominance in slalom, she is likely the favorite in the combined, although that event is harder to call, as it is so rarely raced in the World Cup.

Embed from Getty Images
Mikaela Shiffrin

So has any nation, much less 2 athletes from 1 nation, ever won all 5 individual Alpine Olympic events since 1988? No. The best national performances came in 1998 (Hilde Gerg and Katja Seizinger) and 2010 (Maria Höfl-Riesch and Viktoria Rebensburg) for Germany, which won 3 gold medals; and 2002 for Croatia, when Janica Kostelić won 3 races – slalom, giant slalom, and combined. Among the men, only Austria in 1998 won 3 individual Alpine gold medals, with Hermann Maier winning giant slalom and super-G, and Mario Reiter winning the combined.

So no nation has ever come close. It’s a longshot for Vonn and Shiffrin to win 5 golds, as it was for Eric Heiden in 1980, but it is possible. Can Lindsey and Mikaela do it? We shall see.

Sochi Medal Updates #4

This week the IOC disqualified 12 more Russian Winter Olympians from the Sochi 2014 Games – Aleksey Voyevoda (BOB) on Monday, 18 December, and then yesterday, 11 more athletes were disqualified. This brings to 43 the number of Russians disqualified from Sochi since 1 November by the Oswald Commission findings. In all, 44 Russians have been disqualified from Sochi as Aleksandr Loginov (BIA) was DQed back in 2014.

Sonny and Cher once sang “The Beat Goes On” and Emerson, Lake & Palmer implored us to “Welcome back, my friends, to the show that never ends.” But we think this ends it. The IOC examined 46 cases which was the number they said they had on their docket – exonerating 3 athletes and disqualifying 43. So, hopefully, we can summarize the “final” results of the medal standings from Sochi.

Here are the original medal standings from Sochi, again listing the NOC ranks by the US method (Medals-Gold-Silver-Bronze) and the European/International method (Gold-Silver-Bronze).

Original

NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk

23-Feb-14

RUS 13 11 9 33 1 1

23-Feb-14

USA 9 7 12 28 2 4

23-Feb-14

NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2

23-Feb-14

CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3

23-Feb-14

NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

23-Feb-14

GER 8 6 5 19 6 6

23-Feb-14

AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9

23-Feb-14

FRA 4 4 7 15 8 10

23-Feb-14

SWE 2 7 6 15 9 14

23-Feb-14

SUI 6 3 2 11 10 7

23-Feb-14

CHN 3 4 2 9 11 12

23-Feb-14

KOR 3 3 2 8 12 13

23-Feb-14

CZE 2 4 2 8 13 15

23-Feb-14

SLO 2 2 4 8 14 16

23-Feb-14

JPN 1 4 3 8 15 17

23-Feb-14

ITA 0 2 6 8 16 22

23-Feb-14

BLR 5 0 1 6 17 8

23-Feb-14

POL 4 1 1 6 18 11

23-Feb-14

FIN 1 3 1 5 19 18

23-Feb-14

GBR 1 1 2 4 20 19

23-Feb-14

LAT 0 2 2 4 21 23

23-Feb-14

AUS 0 2 1 3 22 24

23-Feb-14

UKR 1 0 1 2 23 20

23-Feb-14

SVK 1 0 0 1 24 21

23-Feb-14

CRO 0 1 0 1 25 25

23-Feb-14

KAZ 0 0 1 1 26 26

And here is what the medals and standings look like today. The Russians have lost 4 gold medals, 8 silver, and 1 bronze medal, and dropped from 1st in the medal standings (both systems), to either 4th or 5th, depending on the system you favor.

Current

NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk

23-Dec-17

USA 9 7 12 28 1 3

23-Dec-17

NOR 11 5 10 26 2 1

23-Dec-17

CAN 10 10 5 25 3 2

23-Dec-17

NED 8 7 9 24 4 5

23-Dec-17

RUS 9 3 8 20 5 4

23-Dec-17

GER 8 6 5 19 6 6

23-Dec-17

AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9

23-Dec-17

FRA 4 4 7 15 8 10

23-Dec-17

SWE 2 7 6 15 9 14

23-Dec-17

SUI 6 3 2 11 10 7

23-Dec-17

CHN 3 4 2 9 11 12

23-Dec-17

KOR 3 3 2 8 12 13

23-Dec-17

CZE 2 4 2 8 13 15

23-Dec-17

SLO 2 2 4 8 14 16

23-Dec-17

JPN 1 4 3 8 15 17

23-Dec-17

ITA 0 2 6 8 16 22

23-Dec-17

BLR 5 0 1 6 17 8

23-Dec-17

POL 4 1 1 6 18 11

23-Dec-17

FIN 1 3 1 5 19 18

23-Dec-17

GBR 1 1 2 4 20 19

23-Dec-17

LAT 0 2 2 4 21 23

23-Dec-17

AUS 0 2 1 3 22 24

23-Dec-17

UKR 1 0 1 2 23 20

23-Dec-17

SVK 1 0 0 1 24 21

23-Dec-17

CRO 0 1 0 1 25 25

23-Dec-17

KAZ 0 0 1 1 26 26

Now, everyone asks who will get the re-allocated medals. As noted in previous posts, medal re-allocations are not automatic and take some time as the appeal goes thru CAS (it is virtually always denied) and then the IOC makes a decision about upgrades. In a perfect world, where everyone is automatically upgraded to the next higher position, after a disqualification, this is what the medal tables would look like.

Possible

NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk

Possible

NOR 11 7 11 29 1 1

Possible

USA 9 10 10 29 2 4

Possible

CAN 10 10 6 26 3 2

Possible

NED 8 8 8 24 4 5

Possible

RUS 10 3 7 20 5 3

Possible

GER 8 6 6 20 6 6

Possible

AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9

Possible

FRA 4 5 6 15 8 10

Possible

SWE 2 8 5 15 9 14

Possible

SUI 7 2 2 11 10 7

Possible

CHN 3 4 3 10 11 12

Possible

CZE 2 4 3 9 12 15

Possible

ITA 0 3 6 9 13 23

Possible

KOR 3 3 2 8 14 13

Possible

SLO 2 2 4 8 15 16

Possible

JPN 1 4 3 8 16 18

Possible

BLR 5 0 2 7 17 8

Possible

POL 4 1 1 6 18 11

Possible

LAT 2 1 3 6 19 17

Possible

FIN 1 3 1 5 20 19

Possible

GBR 1 1 3 5 21 20

Possible

AUS 0 2 1 3 22 24

Possible

UKR 1 1 0 2 23 21

Possible

SVK 1 0 0 1 24 22

Possible

CRO 0 1 0 1 25 25

Possible

KAZ 0 0 1 1 26 26

Note that Russia actually goes up 1 gold medal and loses 1 bronze medal from the standings as of 23 December 2017. Why is that? Well, in the men’s 50 km cross-country, the gold and silver medalists, Aleksandr Legkov and Maksim Vylegzhanin, were disqualified. The bronze medalist was another Russian, Ilya Chernousov, as they originally had a medal sweep. So if medal upgrades are done automatically, Chernousov would actually move up from a bronze medal to a gold medal, with silver going to original 4th-place finisher Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR) and bronze going to original 5th-place finisher Sergey Dolidovich (BLR).

But that ain’t gonna happen which is why the “perfect re-allocation” is a bit of specious reasoning. One cannot imagine the IOC upgrading another Russian, Chernousov, to the gold medal, given the Russian problems in Sochi, and if they do not do that, then Sundby and Dolidovich cannot move up onto the podium.

To further complicate matters, Sundby had a doping violation in January for salbutamol – the asthma inhaler that recently nabbed Chris Froome – so it’s unlikely he would be advanced either. There have also been rumors that Chernousov was a whistleblower on Legkov and Vylegzhanin to move up in the medals, which has not been taken kindly.

Here are the sports in which the Russians have lost their medals:

Sport

Class G S B TM

BIA

F 0 -2 0 -2

BOB

M -2 0 0 -2

CCS

M -1 -3 0 -4

LUG

M/X 0 -2 0 -2

SKE

M/F -1 0 -1 -2

SSK

F 0 -1 0 -1

My compadre, @OlympicStatman noted that Russia had now had 44 DQs from Sochi 2014, the most ever for a single Olympics. Here are the all-time records for most DQs at a single Olympics by NOC (top 10):

NOC

Year ###

RUS

2014 44

RUS

2012 37

RUS

2008 18

UKR

2012 13

BLR

2008 12

BLR

2012 11

TUR

2012 11

UKR

2008 8

KAZ

2008 7

AUT

2006 6

Note that the top 9 places are from the Sochi 2014 Oswald Commission findings and the re-testing of samples from 2008 and 2012, with the only other one (10th) the Austrian cross-country ski DQs from Torino in 2006.

To date, since the first disqualification in 1968, there have been 445 ADRVs (anti-doping rule violations) at the Olympics, with 72 different countries having at least 1. Here are the all-time ADRVs by NOC, listing the 35 NOCs with at least 3 violations. Some of these are not DQs but simply reprimands, and a few occurred in pre-Games testing so the athlete did not actually start at that Olympics.

NOC

###

RUS

117

BLR

29

UKR

28

USA

24

TUR

15

KAZ

14

AUT

12

BUL

11

GRE

10

CHN

9

GER

9

HUN

9

POL

8

CAN

7

ESP

7

MDA

7

AZE

6

BRA

6

ITA

6

ROU

6

ARM

5

SWE

5

UZB

5

IRL

4

LTU

4

MAR

4

MGL

4

COL

3

CUB

3

FRA

3

IND

3

KSA

3

LAT

3

NOR

3

TPE

3

We think, and we hope, that this it for now. This has required us to make 239 major edits to the Olympic results from 2008-14, editing almost 12,000 results, and it has not been an easy task. It’s not finished yet, as there will be medal upgrades to come but for now we are up-to-date, and we think this is done until after PyeongChang.

Merry Christmas, Happy Hanukkah, Happy Kwanzaa, Happy Festivus, Happy New Year – and to all a Good Night.

Russian Olympic Adverse Doping Rule Violations

Here is the complete list of the 105 Russians that have had ADRVs (adverse doping rule violations) at the Olympics. Not all were for documented PED usage, as several were for biological passport offenses (BPOs), and some of the drug offenses were not announced.

Name Sex Season NOC Sport Year HostCity
Nataliya Shekhodanova F S RUS ATH 1996 Atlanta
Marina Trandenkova F S RUS ATH 1996 Atlanta
Andrey Korneyev M S RUS SWI 1996 Atlanta
Zafar Gulyov M S RUS WRE 1996 Atlanta
Svetlana Pospelova F S RUS ATH 2000 Sydney
Olga Danilova F W RUS CCS 2002 Salt Lake City
Larisa Lazutina F W RUS CCS 2002 Salt Lake City
Anton Galkin M S RUS ATH 2004 Athínai
Irina Korzhanenko F S RUS ATH 2004 Athínai
Svetlana Krivelyova F S RUS ATH 2004 Athínai
Albina Khomich F S RUS WLT 2004 Athínai
Oleg Perepechonov M S RUS WLT 2004 Athínai
Olga Pyleva F W RUS BIA 2006 Torino
Pavel Korostelev M W RUS CCS 2006 Torino
Nataliya Matveyeva F W RUS CCS 2006 Torino
Nikolay Pankratov M W RUS CCS 2006 Torino
Mariya Abakumova F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Inga Abitova F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Denis Alekseyev M S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Yuliya Chermoshanskaya F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Tatyana Chernova F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Anna Chicherova F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Tatyana Firova F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Anastasiya Kapachinskaya F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Tatyana Lebedeva F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Aleksandr Pogorelov M S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Yelena Slesarenko F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Yekaterina Volkova F S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Ivan Yushkov M S RUS ATH 2008 Beijing
Khadzhimurat Akkayev M S RUS WLT 2008 Beijing
Dmitry Lapikov M S RUS WLT 2008 Beijing
Marina Shainova F S RUS WLT 2008 Beijing
Nadezhda Yevstyukhina F S RUS WLT 2008 Beijing
Khasan Baroyev M S RUS WRE 2008 Beijing
Svetlana Terentyeva F W RUS ICH 2010 Vancouver
Yelena Arzhakova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Sergey Bakulin M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Mariya Bespalova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Valeriy Borchin M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Tatyana Chernova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Maksim Dyldin M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Vera Ganeyeva F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Yelizaveta Grechishnikova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Yuliya Gushchina F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Kirill Ikonnikov M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Vladimir Kanaykin M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Olga Kaniskina F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Gulfiya Khanafeyeva F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Sergey Kirdyapkin M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Yevgeniya Kolodko F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Yekaterina Kostetskaya F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Antonina Krivoshapka F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Andrey Krivov M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Tatyana Lysenko F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Yekaterina Martynova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Anna Nazarova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Darya Pishchalnikova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Mariya Savinova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Liliya Shobukhova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Dmitry Starodubtsev M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Viktoriya Valyukovich F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Igor Yerokhin M S RUS ATH 2012 London
Yuliya Zaripova F S RUS ATH 2012 London
Viktoriya Baranova F S RUS CYC 2012 London
Yekaterina Gnidenko F S RUS CYC 2012 London
Khadzhimurat Akkayev M S RUS WLT 2012 London
Apti Aukhadov M S RUS WLT 2012 London
Andrey Demanov M S RUS WLT 2012 London
Aleksandr Ivanov M S RUS WLT 2012 London
Svetlana Tsarukayeva F S RUS WLT 2012 London
Nataliya Zabolotnaya F S RUS WLT 2012 London
Besik Kudukhov M S RUS WRE 2012 London
Aleksandr Loginov M W RUS BIA 2014 Sochi
Yana Romanova F W RUS BIA 2014 Sochi
Olga Vilukina F W RUS BIA 2014 Sochi
Olga Zaytseva F W RUS BIA 2014 Sochi
Aleksandr Kasyanov M W RUS BOB 2014 Sochi
Ilvir Khuzin M W RUS BOB 2014 Sochi
Aleksey Negodaylo M W RUS BOB 2014 Sochi
Aleksey Pushkaryov M W RUS BOB 2014 Sochi
Olga Stulneva F W RUS BOB 2014 Sochi
Dmitry Trunenkov M W RUS BOB 2014 Sochi
Aleksandr Zubkov M W RUS BOB 2014 Sochi
Yevgeny Belov M W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Yuliya Chekalyova F W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Anastasiya Dotsenko F W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Yuliya Ivanova F W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Aleksandr Legkov M W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Aleksey Petukhov M W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Yevgeniya Shapovalova F W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Maksim Vylegzhanin M W RUS CCS 2014 Sochi
Sergey Chudinov M W RUS SKE 2014 Sochi
Yelena Nikitina F W RUS SKE 2014 Sochi
Mariya Orlova F W RUS SKE 2014 Sochi
Olga Potylitsyna F W RUS SKE 2014 Sochi
Aleksandr Tretyakov M W RUS SKE 2014 Sochi
Olga Fatkulina F W RUS SSK 2014 Sochi
Aleksandr Rumyantsev M W RUS SSK 2014 Sochi
Inna Dyubanok F W RUS ICH 2014 Sochi
Yekaterina Lebedeva F W RUS ICH 2014 Sochi
Yekaterina Pashkevich F W RUS ICH 2014 Sochi
Anna Shibanova F W RUS ICH 2014 Sochi
Yekaterina Smolentseva F W RUS ICH 2014 Sochi
Galina Skiba F W RUS ICH 2014 Sochi
Misha Aloyan M S RUS BOX 2016 Rio de Janeiro

There are 64 women and 41 men.

Here is the breakdown by year and season:

Year HostCity Season ###
1996 Atlanta S 4
2000 Sydney S 1
2004 Athina S 5
2008 Beijing S 18
2012 London S 37
2016 Rio de Janeiro S 1
Total S 66
2002 Salt Lake City W 2
2006 Torino W 4
2010 Vancouver W 1
2014 Sochi W 32
Total W 39

And here is the breakdown by sport:

Sport ###
Athletics 47
Cross-Country Skiing 13
Weightlifting 12
Bobsledding 7
Ice Hockey 7
Biathlon 5
Skeleton 5
Wrestling 3
Cycling 2
Speedskating 2
Boxing 1
Swimming 1

There are likely still more to come. This is a huge number of doping positives for a nation that did not run a state-supported doping system, as Russian officials have insisted is the truth.

Olympic Boycotts

So Russia is threatening a potential Olympic Boycott if they are severely disciplined for doping transgressions at Sochi 2014. If required to compete as neutrals or under the Olympic Flag and Olympic Anthem, it is possible they will elect to boycott PyeongChang entirely.

There has not been an Olympic Boycott since the 1988 Seoul Olympics, also in Korea. That year, 6 nations elected not to compete, led by DPR Korea (North Korea), for obvious reasons. They were joined by Albania, Cuba, Ethiopia, Nicaragua, and The Seychelles, which led to then IOC Vice-President Dick Pound to utter one of his more memorable lines, “The Seychelles? Hell, it’s only a country at low tide anyway.”

The first Olympic Boycott occurred in 1952 when Chinese Taipei refused to compete at Helsinki in protest of mainland China being allowed to compete. Chinese Taipei was the only nation that boycotted Helsinki, but the China Problem would cause problems for the IOC until it was titularly solved in 1980 after negotiations by Lord Killanin.

In 1956 at Melbourne, six nations boycotted over two separate political / military actions. On 29 October Israel invaded Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, causing Egypt, Lebanon, and Iraq to withdraw from the Olympics in protest. On 4 November 1956 Soviet tanks invaded Budapest to put down an uprising there, with the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland withdrawing from Melbourne in protests. Hungary competed in Melbourne, although they likely had little choice, but scores of Hungarian athletes defected, many remaining in Australia, but also a number emigrating to the United States. Switzerland technically still competed at the 1956 Olympics, because they had already had athletes at the 1956 Equestrian Olympics held in Stockholm in June 1956.

There was a small boycott of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and it was due to a complex situation. In the summer of 1962, Jakarta hosted the Asian Games, but it refused to issue visas to athletes from Taiwan and Israel, for which, the IOC suspended the Indonesian NOC. In response Indonesian President Sukarno held an international multi-sport event in Jakarta in 1963 – called the Games of the New Emerging Forces, usually known as GANEFO. China competed at GANEFO, as did DPR Korea (North), and North Vietnam. Unfortunately, none of those nations were recognized by the athletics (IAAF) or swimming (FINA) federations. In response any athletes from Indonesia or North Korea who competed at GANEFO were banned by those federations from competing at Tokyo (China was not a recognized NOC at the time and could not compete). In retribution, Indonesia and North Korea both boycotted the Tokyo Olympics. There was one major loss from that, as by 1964 the North Korean runner Sin Kim-Dan had broken the world records in the 400 and 800 metres, although they were not recognized by the IAAF, and could have been favored for gold medals in those events, if allowed to compete.

There was no Olympic Boycott in 1968 or 1972, although those Games were hardly without problems.  In 1976 26 African nations elected not to compete in protest of the the New Zealand All-Blacks rugby squad playing on a tour of South Africa. South Africa was banned from most international sport at the time because of apartheid, and the African nations wanted New Zealand banned from the 1976 Olympics. The IOC pointed out that they had no jurisdiction over rugby football as a sport and refused to do so, and the African nations walked. For athletics fans, this prevented the big match-up they were anticipating between New Zealand’s John Walker and Tanzania’s Filbert Bayi in the 1,500 metres, which Walker went on to win in Bayi’s absence.

Chinese Taipei also boycotted the 1976 Olympics. This occurred when Canada at first refused to allow them to enter the country, as the Canadian government did not recognize the island nation.  This was in direct violation of the contract they had signed as the host nation to admit all eligible nations in honoring the Olympic Charter.  The Canadians acquiesced and allowed the Taiwanese to compete, but refused to allow them to do so under the title of the Republic of China, their official national name.  Several other countries protested and threatened withdrawal, notably the United States, if the Taiwanese athletes were not allowed to compete.  However, these protests were short-lived and the IOC finally gave in to the Canadian government.  Chinese Taipei watched the Olympics from afar, if at all.

The largest known Olympic Boycott occurred in 1980, when the United States government led a boycott of the 1980 Moskva Olympics after the December 1979 invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union. President Jimmy Carter announced in early January that the United States would not compete if Soviet troops did not withdraw by 20 February 1980. They did not. US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance addressed the IOC Session at Lake Placid in February to announce the US Boycott, which greatly angered the IOC Members. With pressure from the US government, eventually 65 nations did not compete at the 1980 Moskva Olympics. It is actually difficult to say how many actually boycotted as various reasons are given for their absence, but suffice to say that 65 IOC member nations decided not to compete in Moskva.

And 1980 led to the Soviet Union not competing at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, convincing 14 nations under their influence to also not compete. The Soviet’s rationale was that they were not convinced that the USA could guarantee their safety in Los Angeles, but nobody believed their boycott was anything other than retribution for the 1980 US Boycott.

And then came the small 1988 Seoul boycott of 6 nations, since which time there as been no Olympic Boycott. Of note, there has never been a boycott of a Winter Olympics, which could possibly occur in PyeongChang if Russia elects to stay home in anger over doping penalties.

To date, Albania is the Olympic leader in boycotts, having stayed home 4 times (1976, 1980, 1984, 1988), with 3 nations having boycotted 3 times – Egypt, Ethiopia, and DPR Korea. DPR Korea (North) has no qualified athletes for PyeongChang as of 3 December 2017, after failing to enter their figure skating pairs duo in time, so technically they are not boycotting if they do not compete in PyeongChang. The IOC would like them there and there are some negotiations ongoing to see what can be done.

Will Russia compete in PyeongChang? Will North Korea? We await Einstein’s space-time continuum to work its magic and tell us the answer.

The Russian DQs from Sochi

For those of you keeping score at home, here are the 19 Russians disqualified from the Sochi Winter Olympics to date, listing, in order: name, gender, sport, event(s), place(s), medal(s) (if any), violation details, source, and date.

  • Aleksandr Legkov; M; CCS; 50K / Skiathlon / 4x10relay; 1 / 10 / 2; Gold/Silver; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 1 Nov 2017
  • Yevgeny Belov; M; CCS; 15K / Skiathlon; 25 / 18; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 1 Nov 2017
  • Maksim Vylegzhanin; M; CCS; 50K / Skiathlon / Team sprint / 4x10relay; 2 / 4 / 2 / 2; Silverx3; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 9 Nov 2017
  • Aleksey Petukhov; M; CCS; Sprint; 8; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 9 Nov 2017
  • Yuliya Ivanova; F; CCS; 10K / 30K / 4x5relay / Team sprint; 17 / 30 / 6 / 6; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 9 Nov 2017
  • Yevgeniya Shapovalova; F; CCS; Sprint; 28; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 9 Nov 2017
  • Aleksandr Tretyakov; M; SKE; Skeleton; 1; Gold; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 22 Nov 2017
  • Yelena Nikitina; F; SKE; Skeleton; 3; Bronze; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 22 Nov 2017
  • Olga Potylitsyna; F; SKE; Skeleton; 5; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 22 Nov 2017
  • Mariya Orlova; F; SKE; Skeleton; 6; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 22 Nov 2017
  • Aleksandr Zubkov; M; BOB; 2-man / 4-man; 1 / 1; Goldx2; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 24 Nov 2017
  • Olga Stulneva; F; BOB; 2-man; 9; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 24 Nov 2017
  • Aleksandr Rumyantsev; M; SSK; 5K / Pursuit; 11 / 6; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 24 Nov 2017
  • Olga Fatkulina; F; SSK; 500 / 1000 / 1500; 2 / 4 / 9; Silver; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 24 Nov 2017
  • Olga Vilukina; F; BIA; 7.5 / Pursuit / 12.5 / Relay / Mixed Relay; 2 / 7 / 21 / 2 / 4; Silverx2; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 27 Nov 2017
  • Yana Romanova; F; BIA; 7.5 / Pursuit / 15 / Relay; 19 / 23 / 53 / 2; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 27 Nov 2017
  • Dmitry Trunenkov; M; BOB; 4-man; 1; Gold; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 27 Nov 2017
  • Aleksey Negodaylo; M; BOB; 4-man; 1; Gold; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 27 Nov 2017
  • Sergey Chudinov; M; SKE; Skeleton; 5; ; ADRV based on Oswald Commission findings; DQed from all future OG/OWG.; IOC News; 27 Nov 2017

The Sochi Medal Table Revisited – Redux#2

Another day, another dollar. Well, Russia does not like the US dollar so, for them, another day, another 5 Russian doping disqualifications from the Sochi Winter Olympics.

Please see details in my previous two posts on this topic for information about the two medal ranking systems – http://olympstats.com/2017/11/22/the-sochi-medal-table-revisited/ and http://olympstats.com/2017/11/24/the-sochi-medal-table-revisited-redux-1/

Here is what has happened to the first 10 places in the Sochi medal standings, as of today:

Original NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
23-Feb-14 RUS 13 11 9 33 1 1
23-Feb-14 USA 9 7 12 28 2 4
23-Feb-14 NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2
23-Feb-14 CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3
23-Feb-14 NED 8 7 9 24 5 5
23-Feb-14 GER 8 6 5 19 6 6
23-Feb-14 AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9
23-Feb-14 FRA 4 4 7 15 8 10
23-Feb-14 SWE 2 7 6 15 9 14
23-Feb-14 SUI 6 3 2 11 10 7

As of 27 November, Russia has dropped from 1st to 5th (US system) and 4th (International system).

Current NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
27-Nov-17 USA 9 7 12 28 1 3
27-Nov-17 NOR 11 5 10 26 2 1
27-Nov-17 CAN 10 10 5 25 3 2
27-Nov-17 NED 8 7 9 24 4 5
27-Nov-17 RUS 9 5 8 22 5 4
27-Nov-17 GER 8 6 5 19 6 6
27-Nov-17 AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9
27-Nov-17 FRA 4 4 7 15 8 10
27-Nov-17 SWE 2 7 6 15 9 14
27-Nov-17 SUI 6 3 2 11 10 7

Again, please refer to my earlier posts, but here is what happens with perfect re-allocation, i.e., everybody in 4th moves up to bronze, bronze medalists move up to silver, etc. This is an idealized situation and very unlikely to happen in every case. If it did, Russia would actually move up to 2 bronze medals they did not receive originally. I sincerely doubt the IOC would allow that to happen, given the situation.

Possible NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
Possible NOR 11 7 11 29 1 1
Possible USA 9 10 10 29 2 4
Possible CAN 10 10 5 25 3 2
Possible RUS 10 5 9 24 4 3
Possible NED 8 8 8 24 5 5
Possible GER 8 6 5 19 6 6
Possible AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9
Possible FRA 4 5 6 15 8 10
Possible SWE 2 8 5 15 9 14
Possible SUI 7 2 2 11 10 7
Possible CHN 3 4 3 10 11 12
Possible CZE 2 4 3 9 12 15
Possible ITA 0 2 7 9 13 22
Possible KOR 3 3 2 8 14 13
Possible SLO 2 2 4 8 15 16
Possible JPN 1 4 3 8 16 17
Possible BLR 5 0 2 7 17 8
Possible POL 4 1 1 6 18 11
Possible FIN 1 3 1 5 19 18
Possible LAT 2 0 3 5 20 23
Possible GBR 1 1 2 4 21 19
Possible AUS 0 2 1 3 22 24
Possible UKR 1 1 0 2 23 20
Possible SVK 1 0 0 1 24 21
Possible CRO 0 1 0 1 25 25
Possible KAZ 0 0 1 1 26 26

More to come, surely.

The Sochi Medal Table – Revisited – Redux #1

Aleksandr Zubkov, Russian bobsledder who won gold medals in both bobsled events in Sochi, was just disqualified, along with Olga Fatkulina, who won a silver medal in women’s 500 metre speed skating.

How does this affect the Sochi medal tables? See our post of two days ago on the topic of the changes in the Sochi medal table – http://olympstats.com/2017/11/22/the-sochi-medal-table-revisited/.

Here is what happens now, and I’m only going to list the top 5 nations in the first 2 tables, as there are no changes below that level.

Original NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
23-Feb-14 RUS 13 11 9 33 1 1
23-Feb-14 USA 9 7 12 28 2 4
23-Feb-14 NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2
23-Feb-14 CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3
23-Feb-14 NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

With the new disqualifications today, here is what happens.

By the US system, the USA is #1, followed by Norway in 2nd, Canada and 3rd, and Russia dropping to 4th. By the International system, now the rankings change quite a bit, with Norway in 1st, Canada in 2nd, the USA in 3rd, and Russia dropping from 1st to 4th. For an explanation of the two ranking systems, see yesterday’s post (noted above).

Please also note that the team disqualifications in bobsled are not automatic, as @OlympicStatman pointed out in a series of tweets, because of IBSF rules.

Current NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
22-Nov-17 USA 9 7 12 28 1 3
22-Nov-17 NOR 11 5 10 26 2 1
22-Nov-17 CAN 10 10 5 25 3 2
22-Nov-17 RUS 9 7 8 24 4 4
22-Nov-17 NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

Now as we did 2 days ago, we’ll show you what happens if all medals are re-allocated, i.e., 4th moves up to 3rd, etc. As stated 2 days ago, there will be appeals, and it will take awhile and there is no guarantee all these medals will be re-allocated, but this is what it could look like. Here we go down to 19th/17th place since Latvia would move up in 4-man bobsled and is affected. Here, Russia actually stays in 3rd in both systems, because it could theoretically move up to a bronze medal in 4-man bobsled, after the Zubkov team disqualification, although that may be a stretch (they are also being investigated, it is rumored).

Possible NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
Possible NOR 11 6 12 29 1 1
Possible USA 9 10 10 29 2 4
Possible RUS 10 7 9 26 3 3
Possible CAN 10 10 5 25 4 2
Possible NED 8 8 8 24 5 5
Possible GER 8 6 5 19 6 6
Possible AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9
Possible FRA 4 5 6 15 8 10
Possible SWE 2 8 5 15 9 14
Possible SUI 7 2 2 11 10 7
Possible CHN 3 4 3 10 11 12
Possible KOR 3 3 2 8 12 13
Possible CZE 2 4 2 8 13 15
Possible SLO 2 2 4 8 14 16
Possible JPN 1 4 3 8 15 18
Possible ITA 0 2 6 8 16 23
Possible BLR 5 0 2 7 17 8
Possible POL 4 1 1 6 18 11
Possible LAT 2 0 3 5 19 17

As we said yesterday, there is certainly still more to come.