Kasai 8th Winter Olympics, Pechstein 7th

21st and 9th may not seem like much. But when Noriaki Kasai (JPN) and Claudia Pechstein (GER) finished in those places in the normal hill ski jumping and the 3K speed skating Saturday night, respectively, they made Olympic history.

For Kasai it was his 8th Olympic Winter Games, the first person to ever compete in 8. For Pechstein it was her 7th Winter Olympics, the first woman to reach that figure. For the record here are the current records for most appearances at a Winter Olympics.

### Name Gdr NOC Sport Era Consec
8 Noriaki Kasai M JPN SKJ 1992-2018 Yes
7 Albert Demchenko M EUN/RUS LUG 1992-2014 Yes
7 Andrus Veerpalu M EST CCS 1992-2018 No
7 Claudia Pechstein F GER SSK 1992-2018 No
7 Sergey Dolidovich M BLR CCS 1994-2018 No
7 Janne Ahonen M FIN SKJ 1994-2018 Yes
6 Carl-Erik Eriksson M SWE BOB 1964-1984 Yes
6 Colin Coates M AUS SSK 1968-1988 Yes
6 Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi-Hämäläinen F FIN CCS 1976-1994 Yes
6 Alfred Eder M AUT BIA 1976-1994 Yes
6 Harri Kirvesniemi M FIN CCS 1980-1998 Yes
6 Jochen Behle M FRG/GER CCS 1980-1998 Yes
6 Raimo Helminen M FIN ICH 1984-2002 Yes
6 Markus Prock M AUT LUG 1984-2002 Yes
6 Emese Nemeth-Hunyady F AUT/HUN SSK 1984-2002 Yes
6 Mike Dixon M GBR BIA/ CCS 1984-2002 Yes
6 Hubertus von Fürstenberg-von Hohenlohe M MEX ASK 1984-2014 No
6 Wilfried Huber M ITA LUG 1988-2006 Yes
6 Gerda Weissensteiner F ITA BOB/LUG 1988-2006 Yes
6 Sergey Chepikov M EUN/RUS/URS BIA/ CCS 1988-2006 Yes
6 Georg Hackl M FRG/GER LUG 1988-2006 Yes
6 Anna Orlova F LAT LUG 1992-2010 Yes
6 Ilmārs Bricis M LAT BIA 1992-2010 Yes
6 Marco Büchel M LIE ASK 1992-2010 Yes
6 Teemu Selänne M FIN ICH 1992-2014 No
6 Gyu-Hyeok Lee M KOR SSK 1994-2014 Yes
6 Todd Lodwick M USA NCO 1994-2014 Yes
6 Mario Stecher M AUT NCO 1994-2014 Yes
6 Armin Zöggeler M ITA LUG 1994-2014 Yes
6 Ole Einar Bjørndalen M NOR BIA/ CCS 1994-2014 Yes
6 Eva Tofalvi F ROU BIA 1998-2018 Yes
6 Jasey-Jay Anderson M CAN SNB 1998-2018 Yes
6 Simon Ammann M SUI SKJ 1998-2018 Yes
6 Shiva Keshavan M IND LUG 1998-2018 Yes

The above includes all those entered for PyeongChang 2018 although they may not have competed yet.

By comparison the Summer Olympic record is 10 by Canadian equestrian Ian Millar. Two others have competed in 9 Olympics – Hubert Raudauschl (AUT-SAI / 1964-96) and Afanisijs Kuzmins (LAT/URS-SHO / 1976-2012). There have been 9 Summer Olympians compete in 8 Olympic Games.

Have any Olympic champions been succeeded by their twins?

We received a question about the Mulder twins in speed skating. Back in Sochi, Michel Mulder won the 500 m by the microscopic margin of 0.012 seconds. His twin brother, Ronald, finished third on that occasion. While Michel failed to qualify for PyeongChang, Ronald will be racing there, and is one of the contenders for a medal, and possibly even the gold medal. If he does, would he be the first Olympian to succeed his twin brother or sister?

The answer depends a bit on which cases you consider. There’s been several cases of twins winning gold medals together, and some of these have done this back-to-back. For example, Slovakians Peter and Pavol Hochschorner have won the canoeing slalom event C2 in both 2000, 2004 and 2008, so you could say they succeeded their twin, twice even. There have been several of these cases over time:

Twins Country Years Event Sport
Jörg & Berndt Landvoigt East Germany 1976-1980 Men's Coxless Pairs Rowing
Peter & Pavol Hochschorner Slovakia 2000-2008 Men's C2 Slalom Canoeing
Caroline & Georgina Evers-Swindell New Zealand 2004-2008 Women's Double Sculls Rowing
Kristine & Katrine Lunde Norway 2008-2012 Women Handball

Embed from Getty Images

The Slovakian Hochschorner twins, winning the second of their three consecutive golds.

There have been two cases where twins won consecutive gold medals, but without both being on both gold medal teams, like above. This happened twice:

Twins Country Years Event Sport
Yevgeny & Boris Mayorov USSR 1964-1968 Men Ice Hockey
Manja & Kerstin Kowalski Germany 2000-2004 Women's Quadruple Sculls Rowing

However, twins succeeding each other as Olympic champions in an individual event would be a first. For completeness, this has happened a few time with non-twin siblings:

Twins Country Years Event Sport
Hayes & David Jenkins USA 1956-1960 Men's Singles Figure Skating
Robert & Christoph Harting Germany 2012-2016 Men's Discus Throw Athletics
Christine & Marielle Goitschel France 1964-1968 Women's Slalom Alpine Skiing

Embed from Getty Images

French sisters Goitschel share a laugh with French prime minister, Georges Pompidou.

Coldest Ever Winter Olympics? Maybe.

Some people have been calling PyeongChang the coldest ever Olympic Winter Games. Is it the city with the coldest February temperature to host a Winter Olympics?

Maybe. It really depends on whether you look at the daily mean (average) temperature, the daily mean low temperature, or the absolute (all-time) low temperature for February.

If you look at the absolute low-temperature for February, Calgary, Alberta, Canada wins hands down with a record low of -45° C. (-49° F.). And if you look at the daily average temperature, then Lillehammer, Norway and Lake Placid, New York, USA, are the coldest Winter Olympic cities, with mean temps of -9° C. (16° F.) and -8° C. (18° F.), respectively.

However, if you look at the daily mean low, PyeongChang is basically the same as Lillehammer and Calgary. All cities daily mean low temperature is -11° C.

We’ve never sat down and analyzed the daily announced temperatures during the Winter Olympics. The data was not listed in results until about the 1976 Innsbruck Olympics. While weatherbug.com, or other weather sites, likely has the data, it’s not something we have done and not aware of anyone else ever having done it.

Attached is a spreadsheet, Winter City Stats, with statistics about the Winter Olympic host cities, with population data, weather data, and geographic data.

Events Starting Before the Opening Ceremony

Events started today at the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics, 1 day before the Opening Ceremony. This is not uncommon, and also occurred at Sochi in 2014.

Of the 23 Winter Olympics to date, including PC, 14 of them started on the day of, or after, the Opening Ceremony, and finished before or on the day of the Closing Ceremony. This happened consecutively from 1988-2010.

The first Winter Olympics at Chamonix in 1924 had its sporting events end the day before the Closing Ceremony, the only time that has happened.

In 1932, the events finished 2 days after the Closing Ceremony, because weather had caused postponement of events.

In 1964, 1968, and 1984, the events started 2 days before the Opening Ceremony. The events have started the day before the Opening Ceremony in 1976, 1980, 2014, and 2018.

100,000th Male Olympian – Summer and Winter

Following up on my previous post – http://olympstats.com/2018/02/08/20000-winter-olympians-and-100000-male-olympians/.

The start list for men’s normal hill ski jumping qualifying round tonite has been announced. Assuming everyone starts, the 16th jumper will be the 11th new Olympian starting tonite, and will become the 100,000th male Olympian of all-time – summer and winter.

And that 16th jumper and the winner is @Casey16Larson – Casey Larson of @TeamUSA. Tell ’em what he’s won, Don Pardo!

20,000 Winter Olympians and 100,000 Male Olympians

There are about 2,950 athletes entered here in PyeongChang (PC). Of these 1,689 have never before competed at an Olympic Games.

This brings the total number of Olympians (since 1896) over a few landmarks. The following now assumes that all 1,689 new Olympians will compete in PC, which is probably not exactly the case.

The number of Winter Olympians will now top 20,000 for the first time, reaching about 20,705. So some new Olympian in PC will become the 20,000th Winter Olympian – who will it be? Actually, it will be very hard to say, because to date, there have currently been 19,016 Winter Olympians through 2014. So of the 1,014 new Winter Olympians likely to compete, it will be the 984th to enter the start gate. If you’d like to try to track that let us know.

Further the number of male Olympians, summer and winter, will top 100,000 for the first time, likely reaching about 100,997 if all 1,014 new male Olympians compete in PC. This is trackable and it will likely be possible to determine who is the 100,000th male Olympian. To date, there have been 99,983 male Olympians, so the 17th new male competitor to get to the starting line will be the 100,000th male Olympian.

Who will that be? This morning there were 4 mixed doubles curling matches, with 8 men competing. Six of those 8 men are new Olympians, bringing us to 99,989 male Olympians all-time, as of noontime, PyeongChang time..

Men’s normal hill ski jump qualifying takes place tonite. There will likely be 60 competitors (62 at Sochi in this event phase), and of those, about 20 will be new Olympians – as I write this the start list as not yet been announced.

The 11th new Olympian in the men’s normal hill ski jump qualifying tonite will become the 100,000th male Olympian. That should be relatively easy to determine as the ski jumpers go off one at a time. Once I get that start list, I’ll update this.

Sochi Medals Revisited – Again

Today’s CAS ruling puts all Sochi results and purported Sochi results and updates into chaos.

Here is what the original medal standings looked like at the end of the Sochi Olympics (top 5 places only).

Original NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
23-Feb-14 RUS 13 11 9 33 1 1
23-Feb-14 USA 9 7 12 28 2 4
23-Feb-14 NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2
23-Feb-14 CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3
23-Feb-14 NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

After the Oswald Commission rulings, fully released by 22 December 2017, the Russians lost 13 medals from Sochi, as follows:

Class Sport Year Event Place
M CCS 2014 50K 1
M SKE 2014 Skeleton 1
M BOB 2014 2-man 1
M BOB 2014 4-man 1
M CCS 2014 4x10relay 2
M CCS 2014 50K 2
M CCS 2014 Team Sprint 2
X LUG 2014 Mixed Relay 2
M LUG 2014 Singles 2
F SSK 2014 500 2
F BIA 2014 Relay 2
F BIA 2014 7.5 km 2
F SKE 2014 Skeleton 3

This changed the Sochi medals table to the following:

22 Dec 2017 NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
22-Dec-17 USA 9 7 12 28 1 3
22-Dec-17 NOR 11 5 10 26 2 1
22-Dec-17 CAN 10 10 5 25 3 2
22-Dec-17 NED 8 7 9 24 4 5
22-Dec-17 RUS 9 3 8 20 5 4

After today’s ruling by CAS, at least 9 of the 13 Russian medals will likely be restored. The following should be restored:

Class Sport Year Event Place
M RUS CCS 2014 50K 1
M RUS SKE 2014 Skeleton 1
M RUS CCS 2014 4x10relay 2
M RUS CCS 2014 50K 2
M RUS CCS 2014 Team Sprint 2
X RUS LUG 2014 Mixed Relay 2
M RUS LUG 2014 Singles 2
F RUS SSK 2014 500 2
F RUS SKE 2014 Skeleton 3

Four medals DQs have not yet changed. The 2-man bobsled gold medal will remain disqualified as both Aleksandr Zubkov and Aleksey Voyevoda’s DQs were upheld, although their lifelong Olympic bans were reversed. The women’s biathlon relay silver remains removed, as does the women’s biathlon 7.5 km silver, as Olga Zaytseva and Olga Vilukhina have not had their appeals heard yet. The 4-man bobsled gold medal is in no man’s land. Zubkov and Voyevoda were part of that gold medal sled, and were disqualified, but the other two pushers, Dmitry Trunenkov and Aleksey Negodaylo, were both exonerated.

With the CAS rulings, 9 medals – 2 golds, 6 silvers, and 1 bronze – will be restored to the Russians from Sochi. This makes the current top of the medal standings for Sochi look like the following:

Current NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk
1-Feb-18 RUS 11 9 9 29 1 1
1-Feb-18 USA 9 7 12 28 2 4
1-Feb-18 NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2
1-Feb-18 CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3
1-Feb-18 NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

By either the US system (medals-gold-silver-bronze) or the International / European system (gold-silver-bronze) of medal rankings, the Russian team returns to the top of the medal standings in Sochi.

Sports, Disciplines, and Phases

There are 15 sports to be contested at the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics. Oh, wait a minute, actually there’s only 7 sports being contested. Did you know that swimming is not a sport at the Olympics? I know, you think I’m nuts.

But all of those statements have some element of truth to them, including the last one. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defines several types of competitions to be held at the Olympic Games. These are, in order – sports, disciplines, events, phases, units.

Sports are “sports” that are governed by International Federations (IFs). These include what we expect – athletics (track & field), basketball, rowing, wrestling, etc. It does not include swimming, which is not a sport to the IOC, but it does include aquatics, which is.

Disciplines are subsections of sports. Many sports have subsections, such as athletics with running, throwing, hurdling, but only certain sports have defined disciplines by their IFs. Cycling has road cycling, track cycling, mountain biking, and BMX racing. Skiing has Alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, freestyle skiing, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and snowboarding. And aquatics, defined as a sport by the Fédération Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA), recognizes several disciplines, four of which are held at the Olympic Games – swimming, diving, artistic swimming (known until this year as synchronized swimming), and water polo. So swimming is not a sport at the Olympics, it is a discipline.

Events are competitions at the Olympic Games for which the result yields a final result standings and medals to be awarded, such as the 100 metre freestyle swimming, or the decathlon. Thus, in the sport of skiing, we have the discipline of Alpine skiing, and within that discipline, we have the events of downhill, super-G, giant slalom, slalom, and combined (and now a team event).

The decathlon is considered an event, but it also has 10 phases – subsections of an event, in this case, the 10 different athletics events that constitute the decathlon. In other events, things like the finals, semi-finals, first round, qualifying rounds, etc., are considered phases of the event.

Finally, we have event units, which are actually subsections of phases. In the semi-final phase, there is semi-final 1, semi-final 2, etc., both of which are considered units.

So at the Olympic Winter Games, we have 7 sports officially considered as such by the IOC and the IFs – biathlon, bobsledding and skeleton, curling, ice hockey, luge, skating, and skiing.

It might seem that there are actually 15 sports at the Winter Olympics, and the media usually considers this to be the case, and we keep separate statistics for each sport/discipline as if they were all sports. However, the breakdown is as follows, with the sports, followed by their disciplines:

 

  • Biathlon
  • Bobsledding and Skeleton
    • Bobsledding
    • Skeleton
  • Curling
  • Ice Hockey
  • Luge
  • Skating
    • Figure Skating
    • Short-Track Speed Skating
    • Speed Skating
  • Skiing
    • Alpine Skiing
    • Cross-Country Skiing
    • Freestyle Skiing
    • Nordic Combined
    • Ski Jumping
    • Snowboarding

 

It should also be noted that these sports are not immutable. Biathlon is considered a sport because it has its own IF, but that was not always so. It used to be governed by the UIMPB – the Union Internationale Moderne Pentathlon et Biathlon, which governed both modern pentathlon and biathlon.

Snowboarding is technically governed by the FIS (Fédération Internationale de Ski), but it has had its own governing body, and when snowboarding was approved as an Olympic sport in 1998, there was great controversy whether it would come under the IOC umbrella governed by the FIS, which wanted to control it, or the World Snowboard Federation, or even variants of its predecessors, the International Snowboard Federation, or the National Association of Professional Snowboarders. Had it come onto the Olympic Program governed by its own IF, it would be called a sport, not a discipline.

So there you have it. There will be 7 sports contested at PyeongChang. Or maybe it’s 15. Or maybe it’s … We hope this has cleared things up for you.

Vonn and Shiffrin and the Search for Five

Can the USA, or more specifically, Lindsey Vonn and Mikaela Shiffrin, win all 5 women’s individual events in Alpine skiing at the PyeongChang Winter Olympics? And has anything like that ever been done before?

Embed from Getty Images

The Alpine events have been swept before, both by Austria, or rather Toni Sailer, in 1956 at Cortina d’Ampezzo; and in 1968 by France, or Jean-Claude Killy, at Grenoble. Other than those 2 dominating individual accomplishments, no other nation has ever swept the Alpine gold medals, and it has never been done on the women’s side, even with only 3 events, with the closest any nation or person came to that occurring in 1976 when Rosi Mittermaier (FRG) won gold in the downhill and slalom, and a silver in the giant slalom.

However, there have been 5 Alpine events at the Winter Olympics since 1988 in Calgary. At PyeongChang there will actually be an opportunity for a 6th event, with a mixed team event, but here we are only looking at the 5 individual events.

Vonn is coming back from injuries and until later December did not look like she was ready to win any medals, but she has since won 2 races and is likely the favorite in the downhill. There have not been many Super-Gs for women this year, but Vonn did win one at Val d’Isere in December. Lara Gut (SUI) is likely favored, but Vonn, almost a pure speed skier, will certainly contend.

Embed from Getty Images
Lindsey Vonn

Shiffrin has been, until recently, purely a technical skier. In the women’s slalom she will be the heaviest Alpine favorite in PyeongChang, winning 7 World Cup slaloms already this season. She has also won 2 World Cup giant slaloms this year and will likely be favored in that event. Further, Shiffrin, has 2 podiums this year in downhill, an event she eschewed prior to this season, including a victory in December at Lake Louise. With that improved skill in the downhill, and her dominance in slalom, she is likely the favorite in the combined, although that event is harder to call, as it is so rarely raced in the World Cup.

Embed from Getty Images
Mikaela Shiffrin

So has any nation, much less 2 athletes from 1 nation, ever won all 5 individual Alpine Olympic events since 1988? No. The best national performances came in 1998 (Hilde Gerg and Katja Seizinger) and 2010 (Maria Höfl-Riesch and Viktoria Rebensburg) for Germany, which won 3 gold medals; and 2002 for Croatia, when Janica Kostelić won 3 races – slalom, giant slalom, and combined. Among the men, only Austria in 1998 won 3 individual Alpine gold medals, with Hermann Maier winning giant slalom and super-G, and Mario Reiter winning the combined.

So no nation has ever come close. It’s a longshot for Vonn and Shiffrin to win 5 golds, as it was for Eric Heiden in 1980, but it is possible. Can Lindsey and Mikaela do it? We shall see.

Sochi Medal Updates #4

This week the IOC disqualified 12 more Russian Winter Olympians from the Sochi 2014 Games – Aleksey Voyevoda (BOB) on Monday, 18 December, and then yesterday, 11 more athletes were disqualified. This brings to 43 the number of Russians disqualified from Sochi since 1 November by the Oswald Commission findings. In all, 44 Russians have been disqualified from Sochi as Aleksandr Loginov (BIA) was DQed back in 2014.

Sonny and Cher once sang “The Beat Goes On” and Emerson, Lake & Palmer implored us to “Welcome back, my friends, to the show that never ends.” But we think this ends it. The IOC examined 46 cases which was the number they said they had on their docket – exonerating 3 athletes and disqualifying 43. So, hopefully, we can summarize the “final” results of the medal standings from Sochi.

Here are the original medal standings from Sochi, again listing the NOC ranks by the US method (Medals-Gold-Silver-Bronze) and the European/International method (Gold-Silver-Bronze).

Original

NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk

23-Feb-14

RUS 13 11 9 33 1 1

23-Feb-14

USA 9 7 12 28 2 4

23-Feb-14

NOR 11 5 10 26 3 2

23-Feb-14

CAN 10 10 5 25 4 3

23-Feb-14

NED 8 7 9 24 5 5

23-Feb-14

GER 8 6 5 19 6 6

23-Feb-14

AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9

23-Feb-14

FRA 4 4 7 15 8 10

23-Feb-14

SWE 2 7 6 15 9 14

23-Feb-14

SUI 6 3 2 11 10 7

23-Feb-14

CHN 3 4 2 9 11 12

23-Feb-14

KOR 3 3 2 8 12 13

23-Feb-14

CZE 2 4 2 8 13 15

23-Feb-14

SLO 2 2 4 8 14 16

23-Feb-14

JPN 1 4 3 8 15 17

23-Feb-14

ITA 0 2 6 8 16 22

23-Feb-14

BLR 5 0 1 6 17 8

23-Feb-14

POL 4 1 1 6 18 11

23-Feb-14

FIN 1 3 1 5 19 18

23-Feb-14

GBR 1 1 2 4 20 19

23-Feb-14

LAT 0 2 2 4 21 23

23-Feb-14

AUS 0 2 1 3 22 24

23-Feb-14

UKR 1 0 1 2 23 20

23-Feb-14

SVK 1 0 0 1 24 21

23-Feb-14

CRO 0 1 0 1 25 25

23-Feb-14

KAZ 0 0 1 1 26 26

And here is what the medals and standings look like today. The Russians have lost 4 gold medals, 8 silver, and 1 bronze medal, and dropped from 1st in the medal standings (both systems), to either 4th or 5th, depending on the system you favor.

Current

NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk

23-Dec-17

USA 9 7 12 28 1 3

23-Dec-17

NOR 11 5 10 26 2 1

23-Dec-17

CAN 10 10 5 25 3 2

23-Dec-17

NED 8 7 9 24 4 5

23-Dec-17

RUS 9 3 8 20 5 4

23-Dec-17

GER 8 6 5 19 6 6

23-Dec-17

AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9

23-Dec-17

FRA 4 4 7 15 8 10

23-Dec-17

SWE 2 7 6 15 9 14

23-Dec-17

SUI 6 3 2 11 10 7

23-Dec-17

CHN 3 4 2 9 11 12

23-Dec-17

KOR 3 3 2 8 12 13

23-Dec-17

CZE 2 4 2 8 13 15

23-Dec-17

SLO 2 2 4 8 14 16

23-Dec-17

JPN 1 4 3 8 15 17

23-Dec-17

ITA 0 2 6 8 16 22

23-Dec-17

BLR 5 0 1 6 17 8

23-Dec-17

POL 4 1 1 6 18 11

23-Dec-17

FIN 1 3 1 5 19 18

23-Dec-17

GBR 1 1 2 4 20 19

23-Dec-17

LAT 0 2 2 4 21 23

23-Dec-17

AUS 0 2 1 3 22 24

23-Dec-17

UKR 1 0 1 2 23 20

23-Dec-17

SVK 1 0 0 1 24 21

23-Dec-17

CRO 0 1 0 1 25 25

23-Dec-17

KAZ 0 0 1 1 26 26

Now, everyone asks who will get the re-allocated medals. As noted in previous posts, medal re-allocations are not automatic and take some time as the appeal goes thru CAS (it is virtually always denied) and then the IOC makes a decision about upgrades. In a perfect world, where everyone is automatically upgraded to the next higher position, after a disqualification, this is what the medal tables would look like.

Possible

NOC G S B TM USRnk EuRnk

Possible

NOR 11 7 11 29 1 1

Possible

USA 9 10 10 29 2 4

Possible

CAN 10 10 6 26 3 2

Possible

NED 8 8 8 24 4 5

Possible

RUS 10 3 7 20 5 3

Possible

GER 8 6 6 20 6 6

Possible

AUT 4 8 5 17 7 9

Possible

FRA 4 5 6 15 8 10

Possible

SWE 2 8 5 15 9 14

Possible

SUI 7 2 2 11 10 7

Possible

CHN 3 4 3 10 11 12

Possible

CZE 2 4 3 9 12 15

Possible

ITA 0 3 6 9 13 23

Possible

KOR 3 3 2 8 14 13

Possible

SLO 2 2 4 8 15 16

Possible

JPN 1 4 3 8 16 18

Possible

BLR 5 0 2 7 17 8

Possible

POL 4 1 1 6 18 11

Possible

LAT 2 1 3 6 19 17

Possible

FIN 1 3 1 5 20 19

Possible

GBR 1 1 3 5 21 20

Possible

AUS 0 2 1 3 22 24

Possible

UKR 1 1 0 2 23 21

Possible

SVK 1 0 0 1 24 22

Possible

CRO 0 1 0 1 25 25

Possible

KAZ 0 0 1 1 26 26

Note that Russia actually goes up 1 gold medal and loses 1 bronze medal from the standings as of 23 December 2017. Why is that? Well, in the men’s 50 km cross-country, the gold and silver medalists, Aleksandr Legkov and Maksim Vylegzhanin, were disqualified. The bronze medalist was another Russian, Ilya Chernousov, as they originally had a medal sweep. So if medal upgrades are done automatically, Chernousov would actually move up from a bronze medal to a gold medal, with silver going to original 4th-place finisher Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR) and bronze going to original 5th-place finisher Sergey Dolidovich (BLR).

But that ain’t gonna happen which is why the “perfect re-allocation” is a bit of specious reasoning. One cannot imagine the IOC upgrading another Russian, Chernousov, to the gold medal, given the Russian problems in Sochi, and if they do not do that, then Sundby and Dolidovich cannot move up onto the podium.

To further complicate matters, Sundby had a doping violation in January for salbutamol – the asthma inhaler that recently nabbed Chris Froome – so it’s unlikely he would be advanced either. There have also been rumors that Chernousov was a whistleblower on Legkov and Vylegzhanin to move up in the medals, which has not been taken kindly.

Here are the sports in which the Russians have lost their medals:

Sport

Class G S B TM

BIA

F 0 -2 0 -2

BOB

M -2 0 0 -2

CCS

M -1 -3 0 -4

LUG

M/X 0 -2 0 -2

SKE

M/F -1 0 -1 -2

SSK

F 0 -1 0 -1

My compadre, @OlympicStatman noted that Russia had now had 44 DQs from Sochi 2014, the most ever for a single Olympics. Here are the all-time records for most DQs at a single Olympics by NOC (top 10):

NOC

Year ###

RUS

2014 44

RUS

2012 37

RUS

2008 18

UKR

2012 13

BLR

2008 12

BLR

2012 11

TUR

2012 11

UKR

2008 8

KAZ

2008 7

AUT

2006 6

Note that the top 9 places are from the Sochi 2014 Oswald Commission findings and the re-testing of samples from 2008 and 2012, with the only other one (10th) the Austrian cross-country ski DQs from Torino in 2006.

To date, since the first disqualification in 1968, there have been 445 ADRVs (anti-doping rule violations) at the Olympics, with 72 different countries having at least 1. Here are the all-time ADRVs by NOC, listing the 35 NOCs with at least 3 violations. Some of these are not DQs but simply reprimands, and a few occurred in pre-Games testing so the athlete did not actually start at that Olympics.

NOC

###

RUS

117

BLR

29

UKR

28

USA

24

TUR

15

KAZ

14

AUT

12

BUL

11

GRE

10

CHN

9

GER

9

HUN

9

POL

8

CAN

7

ESP

7

MDA

7

AZE

6

BRA

6

ITA

6

ROU

6

ARM

5

SWE

5

UZB

5

IRL

4

LTU

4

MAR

4

MGL

4

COL

3

CUB

3

FRA

3

IND

3

KSA

3

LAT

3

NOR

3

TPE

3

We think, and we hope, that this it for now. This has required us to make 239 major edits to the Olympic results from 2008-14, editing almost 12,000 results, and it has not been an easy task. It’s not finished yet, as there will be medal upgrades to come but for now we are up-to-date, and we think this is done until after PyeongChang.

Merry Christmas, Happy Hanukkah, Happy Kwanzaa, Happy Festivus, Happy New Year – and to all a Good Night.

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